These writers have occasionally also been referred to as the "Postmoderns" see especially references by Charles Olson and the Grove anthologies edited by Donald Allen. One writer associated with the Beat Generation who appears most often on lists of postmodern writers is William S. Brian McHale details his main thesis on this shift, although many postmodern works have developed out of modernism, modernism is characterised by an epistemological dominant while postmodernism works are primarily concerned with questions of ontology.
The Waste Land is often cited as a means of distinguishing modern and postmodern literature. Irony, playfulness, black humor[ edit ] Linda Hutcheon claimed postmodern fiction as a whole could be characterized by the ironic quote marks, that much of it can be taken as tongue-in-cheek.
According to Fowler, "the poioumenon is calculated to offer opportunities to explore the boundaries of fiction and reality—the limits of narrative truth.
He had close ties with modernism because of his friendship with James Joyce ; however, his work helped shape the development of literature away from modernism. Along with Beckett and Borges, a commonly cited transitional figure is Vladimir Nabokov ; like Beckett and Borges, Nabokov started publishing before the beginning of postmodernity in Russian, in English.
Notable influences[ edit ] Playwrights who worked in the late 19th and early 20th century whose thought and work would serve as an influence on the aesthetic of postmodernism include Swedish dramatist August Strindbergthe Italian author Luigi Pirandelloand the German playwright and theorist Bertolt Brecht.
His works published after are mostly meta-literary attempts that must be read in light of his own theories and previous works and the attempt to deconstruct literary forms and genres.
In fact, several novelists later to be labeled postmodern were first collectively labeled black humorists: Slavittdescribes a week in the life of a poet and his creation of a poem which, by the last couple of pages, proves remarkably prophetic.
For example, metafiction and pastiche are often used for irony. Another example is B. Intertextuality in postmodern literature can be a reference or parallel to another literary work, an extended discussion of a work, or the adoption of a style.
For example, it contains characters named Mike Fallopian and Stanley Koteks and a radio station called KCUF, while the novel as a whole has a serious subject and a complex structure. Rather, it could also indicate a reaction against modernism in the wake of the Second World War with its disrespect for human rights, just confirmed in the Geneva Conventionthrough the rape of Nankingthe Bataan Death Marchthe atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasakithe Holocaustthe bombing of Dresdenthe fire-bombing of Tokyoand Japanese American internment.
The plays of the Theatre of the Absurd parallel postmodern fiction in many ways. Arguably postmodernism peaked in the s and s with the publication of Catch inLost in the Funhouse inSlaughterhouse-Five inand many others. The prefix "post", however, does not necessarily imply a new era.
Artists associated with Surrealismwhich developed from Dadaism, continued experimentations with chance and parody while celebrating the flow of the subconscious mind.
In the s, artists associated with Dadaism celebrated chance, parody, playfulness, and challenged the authority of the artist.
It was rejected for publication and remained supposedly lost until published posthumously in These developments are occasionally collectively labeled "postmodern"; more commonly, some key figures Samuel BeckettWilliam S. Anagramsby David R. It can be a combination of multiple genres to create a unique narrative or to comment on situations in postmodernity: In character development, both modern and postmodern literature explore subjectivismturning from external reality to examine inner states of consciousness, in many cases drawing on modernist examples in the " stream of consciousness " styles of Virginia Woolf and James Joyceor explorative poems like The Waste Land by T.
Kurt Vonnegut also commonly used this technique: In Postmodernist literature this can be an homage to or a parody of past styles. Burroughs uses science fiction, detective fiction, westerns; Margaret Atwood uses science fiction and fairy tales; Giannina Braschi mixes poetry, commercials, musical, manifesto, and drama; Umberto Eco uses detective fiction, fairy tales, and science fiction, Derek Pell relies on collage and noir detective, erotica, travel guides, and how-to manuals, and so on.Postmodern literature is literature characterized by reliance on narrative techniques such as fragmentation, paradox, and the unreliable narrator; and is often (though not exclusively) defined as a style or a trend which emerged in the post–World War II mi-centre.comdern works are seen as a response against dogmatic following of Enlightenment thinking and Modernist approaches to literature.
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