As tensions between the superpowers eased after the collapse of the Soviet Union, academic discussions of definitions of security significantly expanded to encompass a far broader range of threats to peace, including, particularly, environmental threats associated with the political implications of resource use or pollution.
Environmental conflicts in literature is particularly relevant in contexts where communities or countries share boundaries. In this issue, the role that vulnerability plays in conflicts is emphasised by a number of the authors.
Because of the complex nature of and delays in dealing with such land claims, some conservation areas have been illegally occupied Boblikely leading to environmental degradation and fuelling of conflicts. While these relationships are dynamic, LUMC may lead to their impairment or even loss, with ensuing impacts on biocultural diversity.
While only briefly touched upon, the study also shows a clear need for greater engagement by local government in NRM and in dealing with conflicts.
Environmental conflicts are certainly one of the more recognized and appreciated types of conflicts. This is followed by a discussion of the impacts of climate change in relation to environmental conflicts. Wildlife-community conflicts in conservation areas in Kenya. They propose an integrated and functionally applied based on indicators framework to understand conflict dynamics and inform models that are capable of describing spatio-temporal aspects Environmental conflicts in literature different contexts to provide decision support for biodiversity management.
Land Use Policy, 23, pp. Science, Technology and Management Vol. Omolo highlights that women from pastoral communities are often forced to move to cities during times of environmental stress and that some have turned to prostitution for survival.
If natural capital base of an economy erodes, then so does the long-term capacity of its armed forces. To Build a Fire, by Jack London is a prime example of this happening to a large extent. Here we present a systematic review of CES provided by agroecosystems at the global level, we explore their interconnections through network analysis, and analyse the interrelation between LUMC, CES and environmental conflicts.
Climate change also could, through extreme weather events, have a more direct impact on national security by damaging critical infrastructures such as military basesnaval yards and training grounds, thereby severely threatening essential national defense resources. There is also increased attention in the literature to human intervention and technology in the overall management of environmental risks and conflicts Mubareka and Ehrlich ; Raleigh and Urdal The authors also highlight the vicious feedback circles where the genocide led to environmental degradation and deforestation, in turn creating tensions.
SA Public Law, 22 1pp. This effort was conducted within the framework of the research project entitled "Portugal: In almost all cases, the environment does triumph over man in some way or another.
Water conflicts Klare Furthermore, improper land use planning and ineffective implementation of policies are worsening the situation and contributing to ad hoc and often inappropriate interventions. The strategies, according to the authors, appear to be entirely contextual, based inter alia on the socio-economic, political and cultural environment, and the level at which they are implemented.
The resulting environmental conflicts push most frequently for greater participation of actors involved in farming, socio-cultural revalorisation of farmland activities and the promotion of multi-functionality. This in turn causes further tensions and conflicts as resources become scarce.
For example, Perry et al. In this issue, Okech addresses one element of such control, that of environmental conservation, where biodiversity is protected, often by excluding people from making use of certain environmental goods and services in a particular region.
Whatever form conflict takes, it is likely to have several impacts albeit at different geographical scales which may include physical harm to both humans and the natural resource base, impact on productivity levels and economic development more generally.
Fisheries are an example of a resource that cannot be contained within state borders. The author also stresses that communal land administration should remain under the ownership of communities and advocates for a contextual approach in communal land tenure.
Thus, environmental conflicts can threaten nature and social security. Gender and climate change induced conflict in pastoral communities: The impacts of climate change are likely to worsen this situation and make environmental conflicts phenomena that are more widespread globally.
The author also highlights the importance of ensuring stakeholder input and engagement and warns that if these challenges are not addressed, conflicts in coastal areas may increase, especially as a result of climate change and greater economic and population growth.
For example, from an ecological perspective, conflicts can draw attention to environmental problems and result in conservation efforts. The construction of security scenarios is also advocated.
Mix and Shriver focus on local resident perceptions and concerns. Furthermore, an important theme is environmental racism and the links between poverty and vulnerability.
However, what is important to underscore is that conflicts over environmental resources can result in violent conflicts and this can transcend nation-state boundaries.Environmental security examines threats posed by environmental events and trends to individuals, communities or nations. It may focus on the impact of human conflict and international relations on the environment, or on how environmental problems cross state borders.
Even though there is ample literature about conflicts in protected areas and the field of conservation has investigated them for decades, no consensus exists about the object itself of analysis: the conflict. In this article, we describe three different approaches for understanding socio-environmental conflicts, and we illustrate them with.
Conflicts are a very prominent element in literature. If you were to look up the dictionary definition of “conflict”, you would find that it is a “struggle, controversy, or fight.” Conflicts can take many forms, and each has its own place in literature.
Environmental conflicts are certainly.
Additionally, the literature on environmental conflicts related to CES in agro-ecosystems was scrutinised adding the search terms “cultural ecosystem service”, AND “agric*” AND “conflict*”.
Conflicts about air quality and noxious pollutants: This is a key type of environmental conflict – prominent in the literature and in this issue (see Jaggernath ) – that relates to issues pertaining to social justice and the right to live in a healthy environment.
Mix and Shriver () focus on local resident perceptions and concerns. The map of conflicts presented here was developed by conducting a literature review on a collection of over documents: articles in national and regional newspapers; scientific articles in national and international journals, presentations at scientific events, technical reports, theses, blogs.Download